Aspirations Towards Entrepreneurship and Self-awareness Among Young Female Population in the North of Kosovo & Metohija

Main Article Content

Isidora Ljumović
Krsto Jakšić
Ivana Lečovski-Milojkić


Encouraging entrepreneurial culture and developing entrepreneurial education are a key factors for the development of modern economies and society as a whole. Although the number of female entrepreneurs is growing, it is still relatively low and one of the ways to achieve the gender balance in the field of entrepreneurship is the entrepreneurial education that will introduce women with the ability of the business venture through the phenomena of education.

The aim of this research is to examine the aspirations and intentions towards entrepreneurship in female undergraduate students and to understand which factors influence students’ entrepreneurial intention and behavior. The survey was conducted among female population of the final years of the University of Priština temporary seated in Kosovska Mitrovica as well as female students of the fourth year of secondary schools in the North of K&M.


We find that the half of respondents never engaged in entrepreneurial activities and that one third of them were involved in such activities by helping parents, friends or acquaintances. Female students in North Kosovo&Metohija generally recognize and highly rank qualities such as desire for success, confidence, creativity and initiative as very important for engaging in entrepreneurial activities. Their previous experience and positive attitude towards entrepreneurship are promising factors for the future growth of the number of female entrepreneurs in North K&M.

Article Details



[1] Adnan, Iqbal, Melhem Yahya, and Kokash Husam. 2012. “Readiness of the University Students towards Entrepreneurship in Saudi private university: An Exploratory Study.” European Scientific Journal, 8(15).
[2] Ahl, Helene. 2006. “Why Research on Women Entrepreneurs Needs New Directions.”Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 30(5): 595–621.
[3] Blanchflower, David. 2004. Self-Employment: More May Not Be Better. Swedish Economic Policy Review, 11, 15-74.
[4] Brush, Candida G. 2006. Women entrepreneurs: A research review. In: Casson M, Yeung B, Basu A, et al. (eds) The Oxford Handbook of Entrepreneurship. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 611–628.
[5] De Bruin, Anne, Candida G. Brush, C.G., and Frederike Welter. 2006. Introduction to the special issue: Towards building cumulative knowledge on women’s entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship Theory & Practice, 30, 585–592.
[6] Ekpe, Isidor, and Norsiah Math. 2012. “The Moderating Effect of Social Environment on the Relationship between Entrepreneurial Orientation and Entrepreneurial Intentions of Female Students at Nigerian Universities.” International Journal of Management Sciences and Business Research, Vol. 1, No. 4.
[7] European Commission. 2008. Entrepreneurship in higher education, especially in non-business studies. Available at: (accessed 4 March 2013).
[8] Jones, Sally. 2014. “Gendered discourses of entrepreneurship in UK higher education: The fictive entrepreneur and the fictive student.” International Small Business Journal, 32(3): 237–258.
[9] Karimi, Saeid, Mohammad Chizari, Harm J.A. Biemans, and Martin Mulder. 2010. “Entrepreneurship Education in Iranian Higher Education: The Current State and Challenges.” European Journal of Scientific Research, 48(1), 35-50.
[10] Karimi, Saeid, Harm J.A. Biemans, Thomas Lans, Martin Mulder, and Mohammad Chizari. 2013. “The Impact of Entrepreneurship Education: A Study of Iranian Students’ Entrepreneurial Intentions and Opportunity Identification.” Journal of Small Business Management, forthcoming.
[11] Kelley, Donna J., Candida Brush, Patrica Greene, Mahdavi, Mahnaz, Mahdi, Marcia Cole, Majbouri, Dean, Monica, and Heavlow, René. 2013. Global Entrepreneurship Monitor 2012 Women’s Report. Babson Park, MA: Babson College.
[12] Khuong, Mai Ngoc, and Nguyen Huu An. 2016. “The factors affecting entrepreneurial intention of the students of Vietnam National University—a mediation analysis of perception toward entrepreneurship.” Journal of Economics, Business and Management, 4(2).
[13] Kume, Anisa, Vasilika Kume, and Besa Shahini. 2013. “Entrepreneurial characteristics amongst university Students in Albania” The emergence entrepreneurship education: Development, trends and challenges.” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(5): 577–598.
[14] Kuratko, Donald. 2005. The emergence entrepreneurship education: Development trends and challenges. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, 29(5):577-598.
[15] Langowitz, Nan, and Maria Minniti. 2007. “The entrepreneurial propensity of women. Entrepreneurship.” Theory & Practice, 31(3), 341-364.
[16] Lewis, Patricia. 2006. “The quest for invisibility: Female entrepreneurs and the masculine norm of entrepreneurship.” Gender, Work & Organization, 13(5), 453-469.
[17] Marlow, Susan. 2002. “Self-employed Women: A Part of or apart from Feminist Theory.” Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 2 (2), 23-37.
[18] Neck, H. M., Zacharakis, A.L., Bygrave, W.D., and Paul D. Reynolds. 2003. Global entrepreneurship monitor: 2002 executive report. Babson College, Babson, MA.
[19] Ninković, Stefan, and Olivera Knežević Florić. 2016. Preduzetničke sklonosti studenata društvenohumanističkih nauka, XXII Skup TRENDOVI RAZVOJA: “Nove tehnologije u nastavi”, Zlatibor 16-19.02.2016.
[20] Obembe, Ezekiel, Otelsile Oluynika, and Idy Ukpong. 2014. “Under-standing the students’ perspectives towards entrepreneurship.” Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 145, 5 – 11.
[21] Peng, Zhengxia, Genshu Lu, and Hui Kang. 2012. “Entrepreneurial intentions and its influencing factors: a survey of the university students in Xi’an China.” Journal of Creative Education, 13, 95–99.
[22] Rakićević, Zoran, Omerbegović-Bijelović Jasmina, and Ljamić Ivanović. Brankica. 2015. Virtuelno preduzetništvo: obrazovanje kao podrška preduzetničkoj spremnosti studenata. Synthesis, 635-641.
[23] Storey, David. 1994. “Understanding the small business sector.” Capítulo 6, pp. 160–203. London: Routledge.
[24] Tong, Xue Fa, David Yoon Kin Tong, and Liang Chen Loy. 2011. “Factors influencing entrepreneurial intention among university students.” International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanity Studies, 3(1), ISSN: 1309-8063 (Online) 487.
[25] Wang, Clement K., and Poh-Kam Wong. 2004. “Entrepreneurial interest of university students in Singapore.” Technovation 24(2):163–172.
[26] White, S.B., and Paul D. Reynolds. 1996. Government programs and high growth new firms. Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research. Center for Entrepreneurial Studies Babson College. Wellesley, MA.: 621–635.
[27] Welter, Frederike. 2004. “The environment for female entrepreneurship in Germany.” Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 11(2), 212-221.