JWEE https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee <p>Founded in 2008, the <span style="color: #f87217;"><strong>Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education (JWEE)</strong></span> is dedicated to fostering research, analysis and study concerning the entrepreneurship and education of women. The journal is published by the Institute of Economic Sciences twice a year in electronic format, in English.</p> <p>Considering main topics such as entrepreneurial potential and gender effects, gender differences and socio-economic environment in the development of entrepreneurial intentions, the resilience of entrepreneurial firms owned by women, entrepreneurial leadership (gender aspects), female entrepreneurship and organizational culture, entrepreneurial education of women, as well as the participation of authors from more than 30 countries, it has fully justified its international significance and reputation.</p> <p>The journal is included in the following indexing databases: <strong>EconLit-American Economic Association</strong>, <strong>RePEc</strong>, <strong>ECONBIZ</strong>, <strong>DOAJ</strong>, <strong>ROAD</strong> and <strong>Scopus</strong>. According to the latest edition of the SCImago Journal Rank (powered by Scopus), the Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education (JWEE) published by the Institute of economic sciences has been awarded <strong>Q3</strong> status for the category Business, Management, and Accounting (miscellaneous) and category Gender Studies for 2021.</p> <p>Since 2022, JWEE has been classified as a national journal with international significance (M24) according to the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Serbia.</p> <p>Chief Editor is Acad. Prof. Dr Mirjana Radović-Marković, is also the creator and the founder of the journal.</p> <p><em>Frequency:</em> 2 issues/year</p> <h3><a href="https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/about/editorialTeam">Editorial team</a></h3> <p>&nbsp;</p> Institute of Economic Sciences, Belgrade, Serbia en-US JWEE 1821-1283 <p>Once the manuscript is accepted for publication, authors shall transfer the copyright to the publisher. If the submitted manuscript is not accepted for printing by the journal, the authors shall retain all their rights. The following rights on the manuscript are transferred to the publisher, including any supplementary materials and any parts, extracts or elements of the manuscript:</p> <ul> <li>the right to reproduce and distribute the manuscript in printed form, including print-on-demand;</li> <li>the right to print prepublications, reprints and special editions of the manuscript;</li> <li>the right to translate the manuscript into other languages;</li> <li>the right to reproduce the manuscript using photomechanical or similar means including, but not limited to photocopy, and the right to distribute these copies;</li> <li>the right to reproduce and distribute the manuscript electronically or optically using and all data carriers or storage media, and especially in machine readable/digitalized form on data carriers such as hard drive, CD-ROM, DVD, Blu-ray Disc (BD), Mini Disc, data tapes, and the right to reproduce and distribute the article via these data carriers;</li> <li>the right to store the manuscript in databases, including online databases, as well as the right to transmit the manuscript in all technical systems and modes;</li> <li>the right to make the manuscript available to the public or to closed user groups on individual demand, for use on monitors or other readers (including e-books), and in printable form for the user, either via the Internet, online service, or via internal or external networks.</li> </ul> <p>Authors reserve the copyright to published articles and have the right to use the article in the same manner like third parties in accordance with the licence <strong>Attribution-Non-Commercial-Non-Derivate 4.0 International (CC BY)</strong>. Thereby they must quote the basic bibliographic data of the source article published in the journal (authors, article title, journal title, volume, pagination).</p> Entrepreneurial Orientation and Entrepreneurial Performance among Female Entrepreneurs: Empirical Evidence from Kenya https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1380 <p>The purpose of this paper was to study whether entrepreneurial performance can be explained by entrepreneurial orientation among female entrepreneurs in Kenya. This empirical research is based on the data from 301 micro and small enterprises (MSEs) located in Kenya. A linear multiple regression analysis on the effect of entrepreneurial orientation on entrepreneurial performance among the female entrepreneurs was conducted. The paper focused on the five aspects of entrepreneurial orientation&nbsp; (risk-taking,&nbsp; innovativeness, pro-activeness, competitive aggressiveness and autonomy) and their ability to prompt entrepreneurial performance which was defined as firm performance, development of personal wealth and social performance. Social performance was rather well predicted by entrepreneurial orientation&nbsp; (by 4 out of 5 aspects), whereas firm performance was only limitedly predicted by entrepreneurial orientation (only by 2 out of 5 aspects) and development of personal wealth was not predicted by entrepreneurial orientation&nbsp; at all (by 0 out of 5 aspects). On the other hand, we&nbsp; see that the entrepreneurial orientation aspects of innovativeness and pro-activeness have the most predictive value (for 2 out 3 entrepreneurial performance indicators), whereas risk-taking and autonomy have only limited predictive value (for only 1 out of 3 entrepreneurial performance indicators) and competitive aggressiveness has no predictive value at all (for 0 out of 3 entrepreneurial performance indicators). The paper is based on own-collected empirical data. The paper indicates that the benefits of aligning high levels of entrepreneurial orientation is not unanimous but varies across the different aspects of entrepreneurial orientation and the different entrepreneurial performance indicators.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Kimeu Muindi Enno Masurel ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 3-4 7 26 10.28934/jwee22.34.pp1-26 Women Mayors in Slovakia https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1480 <p>In Slovakia, the evidence reports women underrepresentation in local politics. In this paper, the spatial insight to the numeric women representation in local governments at the position of the mayor (elected local authority) in Slovakia in recent 20 years is given. The aim of the paper is to identify the areas, where the representation of women mayors is the most evident and how it evolves in time. For better visibility of results on the map, local data for 2,924 local governments (municipalities) are aggregated to the district level (79 districts at LAU1) and the shares of women mayors on all mayors in a district are displayed for five election periods since 2002. Results confirm the increasing trend of women representation in local governments. Beside it, they unveil that the increase of the portion of women mayors is observed firstly in the south – center part and edge north-eastern part of Slovakia. These areas are characterized by high fragmentation of residential structure, low GDP per capita and higher ethnolinguistic fragmentation. Then the increase of women representation in local governments subsequently continued in south-eastern and south-western part of Slovakia.</p> Lenka Maličká ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-10-10 2022-10-10 3-4 27 45 10.28934/jwee22.34.pp27-45 Driving Factors for Women's Switch to Electric Vehicles in Conservative Kuwait https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1515 <p>Electric Vehicles (EV) is probably the most disruptive and innovative product since the introduction of a smart phone in 2007. However, attitude of women towards (EV) in oil rich and conservative countries like Kuwait has not been explored. The aim of this research is to bridge that gap with this study that employed a quantitative method, that is a questionnaire of 234 women drivers. Results showed that more than half of participated women would buy an EV within the next 3 years, if several conditions were met; including cheaper purchasing pricing with government assistance and availability of suitable infrastructure for EV relating to charging stations, fast lanes, and free parking spaces. More than forty percent of the participants would also seriously start thinking about buying EV if the gas/fuel prices increase between 50% to 199% and thought that EVs are safer in relation to fire and car crashes. Moreover, they would pay 6%-20% more for an EV that is both environmentally friendly and much quicker than gasoline cars. In addition, about forty percent of women drivers would be able to charge EV in their residential areas in Kuwait. This study discussed a variety of valuable suggestions to overcome the barriers of EVs introductions to Kuwait and marketing strategies altogether with government initiatives and policies. One of the key conclusions is the fact that focused educational efforts should be undertaken to help female owners in Kuwait to understand better the benefits and the overall potential of EV.&nbsp;</p> Andri Ottesen Sumayya Banna Basil Alzougool Vladimir Simović ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-10-21 2022-10-21 3-4 46 67 10.28934/jwee22.34.pp46-67 Gender Discrimination in Higher Education Institutions of Northeast India https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1452 <p><em>Gender discrimination is a common phenomenon in the higher education institutions in many parts of India as well as the world. North-east India is a less developed area of India. For promoting higher education in north-east India, good numbers of higher education institutions are established in north-east India from time to time. But, how far the north-east India higher education institutions are maintaining the gender equality is a serious question before the researchers. Therefore, this study was designed to study gender discrimination in higher education institutions of north-east India. The objectives of the study were to study the status of women employees in comparison to men employees and to study the status of girls in comparison to boys in the higher education institutions<strong>.</strong> Six higher education institutions were taken as sample institutions of the study. The study included public relation officers/representatives of the head of the institutions, and head of the departments of the institutions as participants. The study was a descriptive survey type research. Two information schedules were used as tools for collection of data from participants. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis were used for the study. The study revealed that women possessed inferior status in comparison to men in all the administrative and the related positions, and in the entire academic and the related positions in higher education institutions. Further, the study indicated that, girls possessed inferior status in comparison to boys in enrolement to the different courses whereas girls possessed superior status in comparison to boys in retention in different courses and in completion of the courses (achievement) in higher education institutions.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</em></p> Tapan Kumar Basantia Yengkhom Rameshwari Devi ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-01 2022-11-01 3-4 68 102 10.28934/jwee22.34.pp68-102 Pushed or Pulled into Entrepreneurship? Motivations behind Entrepreneurial Entry for Women with Disabilities in Bangladesh https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1483 <p style="font-weight: 400;"><em>This research is aimed to explore the entrepreneurial motivations for women entrepreneurs with disabilities (EWDs) in Bangladesh. The paper adopted the push-pull theory of entrepreneurial motivation as its theoretical background and assessed whether women EWDs chose to pursue an entrepreneurial career for “push” or “pull” reasons. A qualitative, multiple case study research methodology based on a semi-structured, in-depth interview format was adopted to enable the respondents to share their experiences. Four cases of women EWDs involved in small businesses were selected based on purposive sampling. Findings imply that the motivational reasons for women EWDs involve a blend of push and pull factors. Four pull factors - economic freedom, higher income, self-fulfillment and achievement, personal development and two push factors – job dissatisfaction and lack of career prospects were found as predominant entrepreneurial motivators. The unique contribution of this paper is to offer evidence on the entrepreneurial motivation for women EWDs in Bangladesh through a qualitative research methodology deriving data from in-depth interviews. </em></p> Saptarshi Dhar Tahira Farzana Sabiha Saju Ibne Abedin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-02 2022-11-02 3-4 103 125 10.28934/jwee22.34.pp103-125 Women in Nigeria: Examining the Motivations for Engaging in Social Entrepreneurship https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1456 <p><em>This paper explored the motivations for women engaging in social entrepreneurship in Nigeria. Using the theoretical lens of African feminism, the paper specifically set out to explore the extent to which three factors- gender, penchant for solving social problems and economic/financial reasons influence the desire of women to engage in social entrepreneurship in a largely patriarchal society like Africa. Existing studies adopting critical feminist perspectives have shown that across the globe, there are embedded biases and institutional constraints which could separate women from men into what is considered appropriate “entrepreneuring” for their sex category (Muntean &amp; Ozkazanc-Pan, 2016). This implies that while it is applauded that women can get self-employed in ventures that create social good, there is the risk of creating biases that unintentionally limits the potential of women toward less-lucrative/tasking self-employment. This phenomenon raised some key questions for this paper: Do women only perform better when it comes to designing enterprises for social good? Or do the narratives show that they could lead in other forms of entrepreneurship but are not because of existing constraints? Simply put, what is the drive or motivation for engaging in social entrepreneurship? Interestingly, such a study is lacking within the African context.</em></p> <p><em>&nbsp;For this research, a qualitative approach was adopted. Secondary data were obtained from the Ashoka.com repository, a reputable organization and social entrepreneurship website, profiled with stories of successful women social entrepreneurs. A total of 6 research subjects were randomly selected for the study. The sample was drawn from the list of published profiles based on the year of fellowship, country and sector of operation. Data were analysed using content analysis. The findings drawn from the analysis were discussed within the purview of African feminist theory and empirical works of other social researchers. The result showed that women social entrepreneurs are majorly motivated by the desire to solve a social problem (rather than make profit), which either stems from a personal experience or those around them. This study recommends that understanding the intrinsic motivation behind their actions can help social activist and feminist organizations supporting social entrepreneurs in their work. The paper further informs interventions that foster the design of social policies and programmes for successful women social entrepreneurship practice in Africa.</em></p> Grace Chinonye Ihejiamaizu Juliet John Inyang ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-11-17 2022-11-17 3-4 126 148 10.28934/jwee22.34.pp126-148 Women’s Economic Empowerment through Tourism: A Case Study of Selected Western Balkans Countries https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1504 <p class="Apstrakttekst"><span lang="EN-US">Tourism is considered to be an essential means of empowering women in the national, regional and global economy, presenting both opportunities for gender equality and women’s empowerment. However, the general lack of women’s empowerment worldwide calls for research. This paper investigates opportunities for women to improve their socioeconomic status through tourism in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, and Serbia. Its methodology is based on qualitative research. A survey was conducted on a sample of 388 female respondents engaged within the tourism sector from these countries. The results are presented through descriptive methods, comparing the attitudes of women 18 to 65 years of age, their respective levels of education and barriers within entrepreneurship activities in tourism. The data obtained were analyzed in accordance with the objectives of this study and the research questions posed. It is found that training and further education as well as providing financial assistance would significantly assist women in opening their own tourism business within the region. The study also finds that women generally report financial support as a crucial factor in helping support business in the tourism sector. </span></p> Dejana Pavlović Dragan Bjelica Duško Bodroža Elena Jovičić Renata Pindžo ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-01 2022-12-01 3-4 149 175 10.28934/jwee22.34.pp149-175 Earnings Quality and Price Informativeness: https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1500 <p><em>Women’s representation on corporate boards has recently drawn increasing attention. This study aims to investigate the moderator role of females on board of directors on the relationship between earnings quality (EQ) and stock price informativeness. This research uses secondary data obtained from the Sahra database that span 158 active firms on the Tehran Stock Exchange from 2017 to 2021. Findings indicated that the presence of female directors on the board had a favorable impact on the correlation between EQ and pricing informativeness. That is, firms with more female board members have a greater association between EQ and pricing informativeness. The practical application of this research relates to female CEOs’ monitoring roles, thereby enhancing the quality of financial reporting</em>.</p> Ebrahim Mansoori ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-02 2022-12-02 3-4 176 193 10.28934/jwee22.34.pp176-193 Female Medical Tourists' Enplanement Intentions and Airline Cabin Design in Developing Economies https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1443 <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The future of medical tourism in Africa is tied to travel and aviation plays a key role in propelling tourism across borders. This study examined the influence of cabin design on the enplanement intentions of female medical tourists in Africa. Data were obtained using an online semi-structured bi-lingual questionnaire. The survey data were analysed with R software. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression analysis and Sobel, Aroian, and Goodman tests for mediation showed that three elements of seat design (backrest, seat pitch and legroom) had both direct and indirect effects on enplanement intention. This calls for diligent attention and efforts by airlines to remodel aircraft and redefine their services as regards cabin comfort for female medical tourists. This would give the airline an edge over competitors. As a multidisciplinary study, it sets the path towards the revival of the future of travel and tourism in Africa, post-pandemic.</em></p> Juliet John Inyang Felix John Eze John Okiri Inyang Bright Olufesobi Tiwalade Mary Ighomuaye Victory Udoh-King Ekele Sunday Francis Okuniyi Zakariyah Titilola ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-13 2022-12-13 3-4 194 222 10.28934/jwee22.34.pp194-222 Instagram as a Means of Empowering Iranian Women by Focusing on Home-based Businesses https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1514 <p>The focus of this study was to examine how Instagram can affect the empowerment of Iranian women by providing a platform for them to run their home-based businesses (HBBs). The data were collected through sixteen semi-structured interviews with Iranian women who ran their HBBs on Instagram, and Kabeer's empowerment framework was applied to the analysis. The results show that women's empowerment can be improved by running an HBB on Instagram. Participants in this study could achieve greater agency, facilitate access to resources, and improve their achievements by running their HBBs on Instagram. However, all the barriers to women's empowerment could not be overcome by using Instagram.</p> Fatemeh Mahdipour ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-16 2022-12-16 3-4 223 245 10.28934/jwee22.34.pp223-245 Empowerment and Improving the Life Status of Rural Women through Agrofarming in Bangladesh https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1533 <p>This study attempt to identify the factors which influence in rural women income after participating small scale agricultural farming, their contribution to the household as well as their empowerment status. The research has conducted in three villages of Mymensingh district in Bangladesh. Total 75 respondents (women) from three villages of Trishal Upazilla selected purposively. The qualitative data were collected by conducing FGDs, KIIs and Case studies with purposively selected in the study area. The qualitative analytical tools used to attain specific objectives included various narrative, descriptive and continent analysis. Based on the qualitative analysis it showed that women participated in agricultural faming mainly to increase income and to enhance self-respect. Their income from this had brought remarkable positive change in their life and they had better control over their decision and income. These results relate directly to the common rural women’s everyday experience and facilitate an understanding of complex real-life situations. This study reveals the information of the status of women in their family, their decision making ability, their contribution in family income, their status as a member of different groups like NGOs and other social groups which altogether reveal their empowerment status.&nbsp; Finally their active economically participation in small scale farming assist them to overcome prejudice, socio-economic barriers and highest empowerment attainment in the context of Bangladesh.</p> Md. Shajahan Kabir Md. Mubarack Hossain Rahima Akther Maliha Khanom ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-27 2022-12-27 3-4 246 272 10.28934/jwee22.34.pp246-272 Entrepreneurial Intention of Indian Women University Students https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1508 <p>Abstract</p> <p>It is critical to understand various hurdles placed on women graduates in emerging markets and to devise strategies to overcome these obstacles. Individuals who engage in entrepreneurial self-assessment easily finds the right track and will be able to determine the ideal scope of their venture prior to even getting started. The model utilized in this research could be a first step in identifying women who have a specific degree of entrepreneurial passion and entrepreneurial intent. According to the findings, entrepreneurial self-assessment has favorable correlation with entrepreneurial purpose. In order to succeed, the first step is to engage in some form of self-understanding. The tasks that are included in self-assessment help an individual to understand their own capability. A favorable evaluation of one's capacity for self-employment results in an individual's enhanced intention to engage in entrepreneurial behavior. The hypothesis contends the connection between self-assessment and entrepreneurial intention, mediated by entrepreneurial passion. This study makes contribution to the existing research on the characteristics that lead individuals to have entrepreneurial inclinations based on a self-assessment of their own capabilities. This study is in line with the growing interest in research into factors that motivate women to pursue business opportunities on their own.</p> Neenet Baby Manjaly George Joseph Nimmi P M Kailash Nadh K S ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-29 2022-12-29 3-4 273 290 10.28934/jwee22.34.pp273-290 List of Reviewers for the Year 2022 https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1570 Mirjana Radović-Marković ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-30 2022-12-30 3-4