JWEE https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee <p>Founded in 2008, the <span style="color: #f87217;"><strong>Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education (JWEE)</strong></span> is dedicated to fostering research, analysis and study concerning the entrepreneurship and education of women. The journal is published by the Institute of Economic Sciences twice a year in electronic format, in English.</p> <p>Considering main topics such as entrepreneurial potential and gender effects, gender differences and socio-economic environment in the development of entrepreneurial intentions, the resilience of entrepreneurial firms owned by women, entrepreneurial leadership (gender aspects), female entrepreneurship and organizational culture, entrepreneurial education of women, as well as the participation of authors from more than 30 countries, it has fully justified its international significance and reputation.</p> <p>The journal is included in the following indexing databases: <strong>EconLit-American Economic Association</strong>, <strong>RePEc</strong>, <strong>ECONBIZ</strong>, <strong>DOAJ</strong>, <strong>ROAD</strong> and <strong>Scopus</strong>. According to the latest edition of the SCImago Journal Rank (powered by Scopus), the Journal of Women's Entrepreneurship and Education (JWEE) published by the Institute of economic sciences has been awarded <strong>Q3</strong> status for the category Business, Management, and Accounting (miscellaneous) and category Gender Studies for 2021.</p> <p>Since 2022, JWEE has been classified as a national journal with international significance (M24) according to the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of Serbia.</p> <p>Chief Editor is Acad. Prof. Dr Mirjana Radović-Marković, is also the creator and the founder of the journal.</p> <p><em>Frequency:</em> 2 issues/year</p> <h3><a href="https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/about/editorialTeam">Editorial team</a></h3> <p>&nbsp;</p> en-US <p>Once the manuscript is accepted for publication, authors shall transfer the copyright to the publisher. If the submitted manuscript is not accepted for printing by the journal, the authors shall retain all their rights. The following rights on the manuscript are transferred to the publisher, including any supplementary materials and any parts, extracts or elements of the manuscript:</p> <ul> <li>the right to reproduce and distribute the manuscript in printed form, including print-on-demand;</li> <li>the right to print prepublications, reprints and special editions of the manuscript;</li> <li>the right to translate the manuscript into other languages;</li> <li>the right to reproduce the manuscript using photomechanical or similar means including, but not limited to photocopy, and the right to distribute these copies;</li> <li>the right to reproduce and distribute the manuscript electronically or optically using and all data carriers or storage media, and especially in machine readable/digitalized form on data carriers such as hard drive, CD-ROM, DVD, Blu-ray Disc (BD), Mini Disc, data tapes, and the right to reproduce and distribute the article via these data carriers;</li> <li>the right to store the manuscript in databases, including online databases, as well as the right to transmit the manuscript in all technical systems and modes;</li> <li>the right to make the manuscript available to the public or to closed user groups on individual demand, for use on monitors or other readers (including e-books), and in printable form for the user, either via the Internet, online service, or via internal or external networks.</li> </ul> <p>Authors reserve the copyright to published articles and have the right to use the article in the same manner like third parties in accordance with the licence <strong>Attribution-Non-Commercial-Non-Derivate 4.0 International (CC BY)</strong>. Thereby they must quote the basic bibliographic data of the source article published in the journal (authors, article title, journal title, volume, pagination).</p> jweoffice@ien.bg.ac.rs (Marija Antonijević) dragan.vukovic@osm.rs (Dragan Vuković) Tue, 12 Jul 2022 12:51:40 +0000 OJS 3.1.1.4 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Note of the Editor in Chief https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1502 Mirjana Radović-Marković ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1502 Tue, 12 Jul 2022 12:47:35 +0000 Women's Ventures Resilience and COVID-19 Crisis https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1423 <p><em>We complement this research by addressing the question of how entrepreneurial ventures can resilient in the face of adversity in Times of Crisis. First, we conducted a comprehensive web search to find women's entrepreneurial ventures. Based on web search results, we conducted Online interviews with 190 women entrepreneurs that working in many types of ventures. Second, we surveyed innovative actions that help to women's entrepreneurial ventures resilience. Building on these insights, we identified a variety of innovative actions to help women's entrepreneurial ventures resilience in times of crisis. We suggest key insights on ventures resilience for entrepreneurship Policymakers.</em></p> Yousef Mohammadkarimi, Hemn Karimi, Solyman Iranzadeh ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1423 Sun, 17 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Self-help Groups (SHGs) in Business Growth of Indian Nascent Women Entrepreneurs https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1402 <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The purpose of the current study is to understand the role of SHGs in business growth of nascent women entrepreneurs in the Indian context during the pandemic period. It is a primary study of 220 Indian SHG women entrepreneurs using structured questionnaire-based survey using 12 well defined variables extracted from the literature to explain the construct’s ‘role’ and ‘business growth in the context of Indian SHG women entrepreneurs. Quantitative research methodology has been adopted in the study, and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data and interpret the findings. Major findings of the study state that the pandemic had caused both hindrances as well as opportunities for businesses of Indian SHG women, in this context, the role of SHGs in supporting business growth of their women entrepreneurs has been insufficient as per the respondents, SHGs need to focus upon technology-driven roles and adopt training modules for enabling online marketing platforms along with financial access, help to diversify and revive the business with modified approach. Based on the results of the study, suggestions for SHGs and policymakers in the Indian context have been put forth in order to match with the changing dynamics of the market and consumers during the pandemic. The study has increased the understanding of the needs of SHG women entrepreneurs and appropriate policy measures required for their business growth in the Indian context.</em></p> <p><strong>KEYWORDS</strong><em>: women entrepreneurs, SHGs, India, pandemic, business growth, SHGs role.</em></p> Dr. Sabiha Salman Fazalbhoy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1402 Sun, 17 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Evaluating the Influence of Digital Technology on the Performance of Female-Owned Enterprises in Nigeria https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1429 <p><em>The strategic contributions of digital technology in the operations and performance of entrepreneurial ventures are a profound phenomenon, involving continual adaptation to a constantly evolving business environment. This paper examines the influence of digital technology on female-owned enterprises based on customers satisfaction in Federal Capital Territory (FCT), Abuja, Nigeria. Survey research was employed to derive primary data through the use of structured closed-ended questionnaires from 113 selected female-owned enterprises registered with NECA's Network of Entrepreneurial Women (NNEW).&nbsp; Adopting digital orientation, digital capability and digital transformation as dimensions of the digital technology which is the independent variable, multiple regression was used to measure its impact on customer satisfaction as the dependent variable. Findings revealed that the awareness of digitalisation does not suffice to influence business performance, but adopting and adapting to new technology is crucial in creating value addition to meet and exceed customers’ expectations. Conclusively, this research establishes the requisite for female-owned enterprises to embrace and exploit the vast potential and significant role that digital technology plays in the enhancement of business performance, for improved strategic competitive advantage and economic development.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Habiba Shamaki, Umar Abbas Ibrahim, Nnanna Azu Philemon ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1429 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Gender and Age on the Dark Triad in Helping Professions – the Comparison with General Population https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1448 <p><em>Helping professions represent professions in our society, whose main aim is to help others. Less attention was paid to the fact that, like every person, a helping professional has, to some extent, maladaptive personality traits too. The aim of the present study was to explore three aversive personality traits - Machiavellianism, narcissism and psychopathy on a sample of helping professionals. The study was conducted on a sample of 312 participants from different sectors of the helping professions - pedagogical workers, healthcare workers, rescue workers, social workers and general population. The Slovak version of Short Dark Triad - SD3 has been administered (Jones &amp; Paulhus 2014; Čopková &amp; Šafár, 2021). The main result showed that helping professionals scored significantly higher than general population in psychopathy. The testing of between-subject variability while controlling the effect of gender and age indicated that in psychopathy healthcare workers and rescue workers scored significantly higher than general population. We find it helpful to point out that even among helping professionals, who are usually expected to be selfless and prosocial, we can find individuals who are attracted by the other side of pursuing this type of profession - the power they have over the person they provide help to. Based on several limitations we consider this study as a pilot one that might focus the attention on this understudied topic.</em></p> Radka Čopková ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1448 Wed, 18 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Is there a Gender Gap in Financial Inclusion across Countries? https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1404 <p class="Apstrakttekst">The aim of this paper is to examine the differences between men and women in 7 segments related to the financial inclusion. Research is based on the Global Findex Database for 2017. Sample comprises 144 countries worldwide. Authors applied nonparametric Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test using a 95% confidence interval. Results of Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks test show that there are statistically significant differences between men and women in owning a financial institution account, saving at a financial institution, borrowing from a financial institution, owning a credit card, using a mobile phone or the Internet to access an account, using the Internet to pay bills or to buy something online, and making or receiving digital payments. In this regard, countries should focus their policies on measures to increase and improve women's financial inclusion, especially in the segments related to making or receiving digital payments and owning a financial institution account.</p> Marija Srdjan Antonijević, Isidora Ljumović, Đina Ivanović ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1404 Fri, 20 May 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Board Gender Diversity and Intellectual Capital Performance of Firms in India https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1422 <p>The study analyses the impact of female representation on boards of top Indian firms and examines its impact on the financial as well as Intellectual Capital (IC) performance of these firms. A sample representing firms across different industries is studied for a five year period from FY 2014-15 to 2018-19. The data is analyzed using panel regression wherein BLAU’s Index, Shannon’s Index of gender diversity and percentage of independent women directors is taken as explanatory variables. The financial performance is measured using Return on Assets (ROA) and Average Turnover of Assets (ATO). The IC performance is measured using Value added intellectual capital (VAIC) and its sub-components viz. Human Capital Efficiency (HCE), Capital expended Efficiency (CEE) and Structural Capital Efficiency (SCE). The results of the study show a highly significant relationship between gender diversity, independent women directors and other board characteristics with ATO. Whereas, IC performance results are clear indication that at existing levels of women representation, gender diversity or IWD is not showing any specific and strong impact. The result for IC sub-components is mixed.</p> Bharathi Kamath ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1422 Thu, 23 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Retail-based Women Entrepreneurship Entry Model through Small Business Orientation (SBO) https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1438 <p><em>Women entrepreneurship converged decades ago through the small business literature. However, the small business orientation (SBO) concept has not been thoroughly and consistently involved in the women entrepreneurship literature. Thus, the aim of the study was to evaluate the opinions of the retail small business women entrepreneurs to learn their entry model towards entrepreneurship practice in Bangladesh, opportunities, and threats, and the future direction of their business. The study was conducted on the in-depth interviews as well as participants and industry observation among the 20 women small retail entrepreneurs. The study constructs an entry model regarding retail-based women entrepreneurship from an emerging economy perspective. The outcomes of this research would play a great role in future research into the field of SBO and women entrepreneurship for emerging economies.</em></p> Md. Rahat Khan, Sanjoy Kumar Roy ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1438 Mon, 27 Jun 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Antecedents of Entrepreneurial Intentions of Female Undergraduate Students in Bangladesh: A Covariance-Based Structural Equation Modeling Approach https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1482 <p><em>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </em><em>Due to the economic and social development, particularly in developing countries through entrepreneurship, Businesses, government organizations, and legislative bodies have all paid particular attention to entrepreneurship development. However, these developments are impossible without strengthening female students’ entrepreneurial intention (EI). As a result, the primary purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of entrepreneurial antecedents on Bangladeshi female undergraduate students’ EI. A well-organized questionnaire was prepared and circulated to responders using the snowball sampling technique to achieve the goal. Finally, 251 female undergraduate students from higher educational institutions were chosen as the sample size. The covariance-based structural equation modelling (CB-SEM) approach has been applied using AMOS software to complete the analysis procedure. The findings revealed that two entrepreneurial antecedents (attitude and subjective norm) have a significant beneficial impact on EI. The study's outcomes indicate that entrepreneurial attitude, and subjective norms, play a vital role for Bangladeshi female students in enhancing their EI.</em></p> Md. Mizanur Rahman, Aidin Salamzadeh, Mosab I. Tabash ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1482 Fri, 08 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Integration of Gender Aspects into Development of Knowledge Management System in The Entrepreneurial Organizations in Serbia https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1493 <p><em>For entrepreneurial organizations to be able to successfully develop the business strategy, it is necessary to provide optimal resources for unhindered growth, internal coherence, stability of organizational culture, and competitiveness in the market. At the heart of these processes are employees, who directly influence organizational outcomes with their daily efforts, ability, and thinking. Also, the improvement of business functions is necessary for the organization to be competitive with other organizations in the market. In this context, the effectiveness of knowledge management is one of the key aspects in ensuring the development of both individual and group performance. In today’s time of great challenges for entrepreneurs, managing the processes that provide knowledge to both employees and organizations can be a key aspect of business sustainability that is imperative in turbulent circumstances. The purpose of the study was to examine how organizational culture and gender aspects of employees should be put in the function of knowledge management system (KMS). In line with this, this paper attempts to examine the extent to which the processes of improving the knowledge of employees from a gender perspective in entrepreneurial organizations in Serbia are effectively managed. In order for women to realize a greater contribution in entrepreneurial organizations, it is imperative to stimulate the educational process by empowering both women and men to improve their well-being and participate actively in entrepreneurial organizations building. Authors pointed out that when technology and organizational culture are coupled with educational assistance and training, however, adoption improves, and benefits are greater. Finally, they concluded that statistical parameters explicitly show that there are no significant differences on any tested issue, between males and females. This means that their perspective is identical when it comes to the development and use of knowledge management in entrepreneurial organizations.</em></p> Mirjana Radović Marković, Zorana Nikitović, Borko Somborac, Aleksandra Penjišević, Slađana Vujičić ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1493 Mon, 11 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Intention of the Female Students of Business Colleges of Bhutan: Applying the Theory of Planned Behaviour https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1455 <p><em>With the increasing number of women participating in entrepreneurship, it has become an area of interest for most researchers. This paper is designed to evaluate the factors influencing entrepreneurial intention among female students of business colleges under the Royal University of Bhutan based on the TPB model. The data were collected from 230 final year female students through an online survey. Regression analysis was applied to test the studies’ hypothesis. The result revealed that all the three dimensions of the TPB model have influences on entrepreneurial intention among female business students. The perceived behavioural control has the highest positive influences whereas subjective norms with least influence. </em></p> Dawa Drakpa, Sonam Loday, Karma Yangchen ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1455 Mon, 11 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000 The Role of Migration in Women Entrepreneurship and Empowerment: Evidence from Nigeria https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1367 <p>The research examines the relationship between the migration of men and the empowerment of women who remain in the households. The study looks at Nigeria – a Sub-Saharan African country with the highest migration outflows and prevalent gender inequality. The core research question is to examine whether the migration of men affects the entrepreneurship and empowerment of Nigerian women. For the purpose of this study, private entrepreneurship will state the employment status of women from both migrant and non-migrant households while the amount of housework and degree of decision-making power will constitute empowerment. The data is obtained from Nigerian General Household Survey 2018-2019. The sample used in the current analysis consists of 12,199 women, 15 years and older. The Ordinary Least Squares model is applied to assess the changes men’s migration might bring to housework of women who remain in the household. Logit regression addresses the entrepreneurship and decision-making power of Nigerian women. Probit regression serves as a robustness check for Logit, and as a separate econometric model. The findings generally support the pre-experiment expectations: migration of men decreases the amount of housework of Nigerian women, encourages them to run businesses, but reduces their decision-making power.&nbsp;</p> Viktoriya Kan, Boidurjo Mukhopadhyay ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 https://www.library.ien.bg.ac.rs/index.php/jwee/article/view/1367 Mon, 11 Jul 2022 00:00:00 +0000