Gender Discrimination in Higher Education Institutions of Northeast India Gender Discrimination
Main Article Content
Gender discrimination is a common phenomenon in the higher education institutions in many parts of India as well as the world. North-east India is a less developed area of India. For promoting higher education in north-east India, good numbers of higher education institutions are established in north-east India from time to time. But, how far the north-east India higher education institutions are maintaining the gender equality is a serious question before the researchers. Therefore, this study was designed to study gender discrimination in higher education institutions of north-east India. The objectives of the study were to study the status of women employees in comparison to men employees and to study the status of girls in comparison to boys in the higher education institutions. Six higher education institutions were taken as sample institutions of the study. The study included public relation officers/representatives of the head of the institutions, and head of the departments of the institutions as participants. The study was a descriptive survey type research. Two information schedules were used as tools for collection of data from participants. Both quantitative and qualitative methods of data analysis were used for the study. The study revealed that women possessed inferior status in comparison to men in all the administrative and the related positions, and in the entire academic and the related positions in higher education institutions. Further, the study indicated that, girls possessed inferior status in comparison to boys in enrolement to the different courses whereas girls possessed superior status in comparison to boys in retention in different courses and in completion of the courses (achievement) in higher education institutions.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Once the manuscript is accepted for publication, authors shall transfer the copyright to the publisher. If the submitted manuscript is not accepted for printing by the journal, the authors shall retain all their rights. The following rights on the manuscript are transferred to the publisher, including any supplementary materials and any parts, extracts or elements of the manuscript:
- the right to reproduce and distribute the manuscript in printed form, including print-on-demand;
- the right to print prepublications, reprints and special editions of the manuscript;
- the right to translate the manuscript into other languages;
- the right to reproduce the manuscript using photomechanical or similar means including, but not limited to photocopy, and the right to distribute these copies;
- the right to reproduce and distribute the manuscript electronically or optically using and all data carriers or storage media, and especially in machine readable/digitalized form on data carriers such as hard drive, CD-ROM, DVD, Blu-ray Disc (BD), Mini Disc, data tapes, and the right to reproduce and distribute the article via these data carriers;
- the right to store the manuscript in databases, including online databases, as well as the right to transmit the manuscript in all technical systems and modes;
- the right to make the manuscript available to the public or to closed user groups on individual demand, for use on monitors or other readers (including e-books), and in printable form for the user, either via the Internet, online service, or via internal or external networks.
Authors reserve the copyright to published articles and have the right to use the article in the same manner like third parties in accordance with the licence Attribution-Non-Commercial-Non-Derivate 4.0 International (CC BY). Thereby they must quote the basic bibliographic data of the source article published in the journal (authors, article title, journal title, volume, pagination).
 Alam, A. 2011. “Impact of gender discrimination on gender development and poverty alleviation.” Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 27(2):329-339.
 Page, M. B. 2009. “An analysis of gender- based pay equity of instructional faculty members in the Virginia community college system.” In Dissertation Abstract International-A, 70 (9): 3296.
 Bradić-Martinović, A. and Banović, J. 2018. “Assessment of digital skills in Serbia with focus on gender gap.” Journal of Women’s Entrepreneurship and Education, 1-2:54-67.
 Brooks, A. 1997. Academic Women. Buckingham: Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.
 Brown, M. and Ralph, S. 1996. “Barriers to women managers’ advancement in education in Uganda.” International Journal of Educational Management, 10(6):18-23.
 Buongpui, R. L. 2013. “Gender relations and the web of traditions in north east India.” The NEHU Journal, 11(2): 73-81.
 Chesterman, C. 2002. “Women’s executive development in Australian higher education.” In Gender, Teaching and Research in Higher Education: Chalenges for the 21st Century, ed. G. Howie and A. Tauchert, 236-247. Routledge
 Currie, J., and Thiele, B. 2001. “Globalization and gendered work culture in Universities.” In Gender and the Restructured University- Changing Management and Culture in Higher Education, ed. A. Brooks and A. Mackinnon, 90-115. Buckingham: The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.
 Dass, V. N., and Rani, T. A. 2011. “The role of gender in social transformation: The conceptual framework.” In Universities for Women- Challenges and Perspectives, ed. V.N. Dass and T.A. Rani, 5-12. Delhi: The Women Press.
 Dhar, S. 2015. “Gender inequality in education, health and employment in north-east India.” International Journal of Humanities & Social Science Studies. 1(4): 111-116.
 Dhull, I. 2005. “ICTs: Newage tool of women empowerment.” In Globalization of Women’s Development, ed. I. Dhull, 1-34. New Delhi: Sanjay Prakashan.
 Dkhar, R. 1991. A study of the development of higher education in Meghalaya. M.Phil. Diss. North Eastern Hill University, Shillong.
 Doherty, L., and Manfredi, S. 2006. “Women’s progression to senior positions in English Universities.” Employee Relations, 28(6): 553-572.
 Fabian, A. A. 2015. “Does female participation in teaching affect enrolment of female students in secondary schools in Nigeria?” Journal of Women’s Entrepreneurship and Education, 3-4: 97-106.
 Farmer, H.S. 1997. “Gender differences in career development.” In Diversity and Women’s Career Development: From Adolescence to Adulthood, ed. H.S. Farmer, 127-158. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
 García-Aracil, A. 2007. “Gender earnings gap among young European higher education graduates.” Higher Education, 53(4): 431-455.
 Golmei, D. 2008. Women education and employment in Imphal west district of Manipur. M.A. Diss. Manipur University, Imphal.
 Gunawardena, C. 2003. “Gender equity in higher education in Sri Lanka: A mismatch between access and outcomes.” MC GILL Journal of Education, 38(3):437-451.
 Gupta, N., and Sharma, A. K. 2002. “Women academic scientists in India.” Social Studies of Science, 32(5/6):901-915.
 Hasan, S. 2010. “Status of women.” In Higher Education - Issues and Challenges, ed. A.R. Kidwai, 60-73. Delhi: Viva Books.
 Hearn, J. 2001. “Academia, management and men: Making the connections, exploring the implications.” In Gender and the Restructured University- Changing Management and Culture in Higher Education, ed. A. Brooks and A. Mackinnon, 69-89. Bukingham: The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press.
 Itzen, C., and Newman, J. 1995. Gender, Culture and Organizational Change. London: Routledge.
 John, M.E. 2012. “Gender and higher education in the time reforms.” Contemporary Education Dialouge, 9 (2): 197-221.
 Lie, S.S., and Malik, L. 1998. The Gender Gap in Higher Education. World Yearbook of Education. London: Kogan Page.
 Loziak, A. 2021. “Work stress of female primary school teachers during Covid-19 pandemic and demographic differences.” Journal of Women’s Entrepreneurship and Education, 3-4:164-183.
 Mahanta, B., and Nayak, P. 2013. Gender Inequality in north east India. http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/43846/1/MPRA_paper_43846.pdf
 Matope, N. 2012. “Gender discrimination in educational personnel: A case study of Gweru Urban District secondary schools, Zimbabwe.” US-China Education Review B, 7: 689-696.
 Md. Asaduzzaman, M. S., Kabir, R. N. A., and Radović-Marković M. 2015. “Gender inequality in Bangladesh.” Journal of Women’s Entrepreneurship and Education, 3-4: 54-64.
 Mingaleva, Z., and Shironina, E. 2021. “Gender aspects of digital workplace transformation.” Journal of Women’s Entrepreneurship and Education, 1-2:1-17.
 National Science Foundation Division of Science Resources Statistics. 2003. Women, Minorities and Persons with Disabilities in Science and Engineering 2002. Arlington, VA: National Science Foundation Division of Science Resources Statistics.
 Naylor, W.K. 2007. “Percieved barriers to female advancement in higher education.” Dissertation Abstract Internationa-A, 68 (11): 4631.
 Nwadigwe, C.E. 2007. “Unwilling brides: ‘Phallic Attack’ as a barrier to gender balance in higher education in Nigeria.” Sex Education, 7(4): 351-369.
 Radovic-Markovic, M., Lindgren, C., Grozdanic, R., Markovic, D., and Salamzadeh, A. 2012. “Freedom, individuality and women's entrepreneurship education (2012).” Entrepreneurship Education - A Priority for the Higher Education Institutions, Forthcoming. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2164216.
 Ramadani, V., Rahman, M.M., Salamzadeh, A., Rahaman, M. S., and Abazi-Alili, H. 2022. Entrepreneurship education and graduates' entrepreneurial intentions: Does gender matter? A multi-group analysis using AMOS. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 180, 121693.
 Russell, H., Smyth, E., and O’ Connell, P.J. 2010. “Gender differences in pay among recent graduates: Private sector employees in Ireland.” Journal of Youth Studies, 13(2): 213-233.
 Rustagi, P. 2004. “Significance of gender-related development indicators: An analysis of Indian states.” Indian Journal of Gender Studies, 11(3): 291-343.
 Sajuyigbe, A. S., and Fadeyibi, I. O. 2017. “Women entrepreneurship and sustainable economic development: Evidence from South Western Nigeria.” Journal of Entrepreneurship, Business and Economics, 5(2): 19–46.
 Shafina, A. 2020. “Exploring gender differences in selection of subjects at higher education levels in the Maldives.” The International Education Journal: Comparative Perspectives, 19(2): 87-105.
 Shaukat, S., Siddiquah, A., and Pell, A. W. 2014. “Gender discrimination in higher education in Pakistan: A survey of university faculty.” Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 56: 1-17.
 Shelburn, M. R., and Lewellyn, P. G. 1995. “Gender bias in doctoral programs in Economics.” The Journal of Economic Education, 26(4): 373-382.
 Stevanović, S. and Simović, V. 2017. “Financial Performances of the Serbian Enterprises Depending on the Director’s Gender.” Journal of Women’s Entrepreneurship and Education, 3-4:45-64.
 United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women. 1995. Fourth World Conference on Women- Beijing Declaration. New York: United Nations Division for the Advancement of Women. www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/beijing/platform/declar.html
 Weisgram, E.S., and Bigler, R.S. 2007. “Effects of learning about gender discrimination on adolescent girls’ attitudes toward and interest in science.” Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31(3): 262-269.
 Winchester, H., Lorenzo, S., Browning, L., and Chesterman, C. 2006. “Academic women’s promotions in Australian Universities.” Employee Relations, 28(6): 505-522.
 World Bank. 2001. Engendering Development. New York: Oxford University Press.
 Žalėnienė, I., Krinickienė, E., Tvaronavičienė, A., and Lobačevskytė, A. 2016. “Gender equality and its implementation in universities of Lithuania.” Economics and Sociology, 9(1): 237-251.